Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10321/3313
Title: Investigating primordial spirituality practices, social capital, ethic structures and processes in the South African environment
Authors: Ngaka, Mosiuoa Nehemiah 
Issue Date: 24-Aug-2018
Abstract: 
This thesis provides an empirical exposition of an indigenous knowledge system (!KS) conceptual framework that links primordial spirituality with ethical structures and processes that support environmental values of people living in traditional settings. The framework is positioned within the deep ecology theoretical frame of reference. Deep ecologists have a consensus view that the actions of modern civilisation have pushed the biosphere far from its natural state through reduction of biodiversity and economic activities in a way that that disrespect nature. Disrespe ct for nature has culmi nated into an alarming extinction of essential species, communities and indigenous cultu res. The deep ecology theoretical framework has been chosen beca use it offers an approach that guides construction of knowledge abou t the Bushmen (the subjects of this study), thei r cu l ture, spirituality and knowledge systems, in a way that informs the primordial spiritua li ty framework that this study seeks to develop.

Critical realism was found to be an appropriate epistemologica l approach for this study because it is based on the assumption that there is a reality of superlative intelligence that is independent of what can be observed through the five senses. This notion is in sync with the assumptions of primordial spirituality and deep ecology. Given the critical realism philosophical stance, it naturally followed that knowledge for this study would be constructed from multiple sources includ ing transcribed content of in-depth interviews, observations and published material about the Bushmen and their way of life. Inductive content analysis was a methodological approach used for collecting data from multi pl e sources; and purposive sampling was used to select participants. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse data. Themes were generated from the data usi ng open coding which involved tagging transcribed interview content, observation notes as well as relevant literature.

The framework that this study developed has the following key themes: (1) Primordial spirituality as a process of aligning self with a universal energy source and life force that is infused with all life forms; (2) The practice of primordial spirituality sustains life because it enables access to the transformative power of energy from the entire cosmos including, earth, wind, fire, water, moon, sun, and the stars; (3) The curative power of nature when infused with song and dance transforms people into a state of consciousness that facilitates transfer of knowledge from other dimensions of life, including the dimension of life where the ancestors exist; (4) Practicing primordial spirituality results in social cohesive value systems, borne out of indigenous leadership systems and power; (5) Nature is the source
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of artistic expression, a platform for documenting history, and is source of social and natural science knowledge. The framework that this study developed makes a contribution to IKS by creating a space for building alternative social and economic models that allow coexistence of indigenous and western values in a co-operative arrangement.
Description: 
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration, Durban University of Technology Durban, South Africa, 2018.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10321/3313
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51415/10321/3313
Appears in Collections:Theses and dissertations (Management Sciences)

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