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Title: Density, speed of sound, refractive index and activity coefficients at infinite dilution for ionic liquids
Authors: Mgxadeni, Ncomeka 
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: In this study the experimental density, speed of sound, and refractive index for binary mixtures of an ionic liquid (IL): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate and activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in the ionic liquid: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate were determined. The density, speed of sound, and refractive index of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate in pyridine or acetonitrile or thiophene have been reported at T = 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, 313.15 K and 318.15 K using an Anton Paar DSA 5000M vibrating U-tube densimeter and a RXA 156 refractometer. The derived properties namely: excess molar volume, isentropic compressibility and change in refractive index were calculated from density, speed of sound and refractive index, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of molecular interactions (hydrogen bond, dipole-dipole, or ion-solvent or interactions). The negative deviation of excess molar volume and the positive deviation in change in refractive index clearly indicates the strong interaction of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate with pyridine or acetonitrile or thiophene in solution. The positive values of isentropic compressibility for the system indicates that the mixtures were more compressible than the ideal mixture. The Redlich Kister smoothing polynomial was used to fit the excess molar volume and deviation in isentropic compressibility data. The Lorentz-Lorenz equation was used to predict the experimental density, or refractive index data and to correlate the excess molar volume. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine activity coefficients at infinite dilution for 28 polar and non-polar organic solute: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, thiophene, pyridine and acetonitrile in an IL: 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([BMIM][HSO4]). The measured values of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for the solutes in [BMIM][HSO4] were carried out at T = (313.15, 323.15, 333.15) K. Partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution of the organic solutes in the ionic liquid have been calculated from the temperature dependence of activity coefficients at infinite dilution. The selectivity and capacity values for separation problems namely: hexane/benzene, heptane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, ethanol/benzene, heptane/pyridine, heptane/thiophene and methanol/acetone at T = 323.15 K were calculated and compared to literature values for similar ionic liquids, sulfolane and N-methyl-2- pyrolidinone (NMP). The IL [BMIM][HSO4] gave both the highest selectivity and limiting capacity for the heptane/thiophene separation and would therefore be a suitable entrainer for this separation. New data from this study reveals that [BMIM][HSO4] may be proposed as a replacement solvent for the separation of sulphur or nitrogen compounds from alkanes.
Description: Submitted in fulfilment of the academic requirements for the Masters of Technology: Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, 2018.
Appears in Collections:Theses and dissertations (Applied Sciences)

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