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|Title:||The efficacy of phonophoresis with Traumeel® S in the treatment of upper trapezius myofasciitis||Authors:||Deonarain, Virosha||Issue Date:||20-Aug-2012||Abstract:||Background:Myofascial Pain Syndrome is characterized by localized muscle pain, in which affected muscles are in a chronically-shortened state and contain trigger points.It is the single most common source of musculoskeletal pain that is encountered in clinical practice. Modalities such as electrotherapy, cryotherapy, thermal therapy, dry-needling and ultrasound are used in its management. The use of phonophoresis has generated much interest; and literature around this modality continues to accumulate. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of phonophoresis with an anti-inflammatory in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, attributing the efficacy to the penetration of the coupling medium by means of the ultrasonic waves. Traumeel®S, is a homeopathic anti-inflammatory, that has successfully been used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries.It has anti-oedematous, anti-exudative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Its efficacy as a coupling agent in phonophoresis has not been tested for myofascial pain syndrome. Methodology:This study was designed as a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, and controlled experimental investigation. Sixty subjects were randomly allocated to three groups of 20 subjects each. Group Areceived active phonophoresis with Traumeel® S gel;Group B received sham phonophoresis with Traumeel® S gel; Group C received an application of Traumeel® S gel only.Algometer and Numerical Pain Rating Scale 101 (NRS) readings were taken immediately before treatment at visit one and thereafter at visits three and four. Results:Repeated measures ANOVA testing was used to examine the intra-group effect of time and the inter-group effect of treatment on the outcomes of NRS and algometer readings. Profile plots were used to assess the direction and trends of the effects. An intra-group analysis revealed that, objectively and subjectively, all groups responded positively to treatment over time, with no significant time-group interaction. It was noted that there was a higher rate of improvement in Group A over time; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion:The results from this study revealed that all three treatment groups responded favorably to the alleviation of pain. It was concluded that phonophoresis with Traumeel® gel had no significant additional beneficial effects.||Description:||Dissertation completed in partial compliance with the requirements for the Master's Degree in Technology: Chiropractic, Durban University of Technology, 2012.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/10321/746|
|Appears in Collections:||Theses and dissertations (Health Sciences)|
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