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Title: The effectiveness of Leander traction versus Static linear traction on chronic facet syndrome patients : a randomised clinical trial
Authors: Hicklin, John Renshaw 
Issue Date: 2010
The aim of this study was establish if Leander versus Static
traction was useful for the treatment of facet syndrome, a common type of
mechanical lower back pain seen by chiropractors. Two groups of fifteen
participants were chosen on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
The first objective was to determine if Static linear traction was effective for
the treatment of lumbar facet syndrome in terms of subjective and objective
findings. The second objective was to determine if Leander traction was
effective for the treatment of lumbar facet syndrome in terms of subjective
and objective clinical findings. Lastly the third objective was to compare the
subjective and objective clinical findings for both groups.
Design: A randomised, two group parallel controlled clinical trial was carried
out between the two sample groups. Participants had to have had chronic
lower back pain (> 3months). Thirty symptomatic volunteer participants
between 25 and 55 were randomly divided into two equal groups – group A
(Leander traction) received 5 treatments over a 2 week period. Similarly,
group B (Static linear traction) also received 5 treatments over a 2 week
period. Algometer readings, Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NRS101), Pain
Severity Scale (PSS) and Oswestery Disabilty Index (ODI) were used as
assessment tools. Subjective and objective clinical findings were taken on the
first and second visits (i.e. 48 hours) prior to treatment and immediately after
treatment. Another set of subjective and objective readings were taken one
week after the fifth treatment in order to gauge the long term effects of both
treatments. No treatment was given on the sixth visit. Pressure tolerance
measurements using an algometer were taken at the end ranges of motion in
Kemp’s test and spinal extension.
Outcome measures: SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA)
was used for statistical analysis of data. A p value of <0.05 was considered as
statistically significant. The two groups were compared at baseline in terms of
demographics variables and location using Pearson’s chi square tests and ttests
as appropriate. Intra-group comparisons were made between all time
points. A significant time effect indicated successful treatment intervention.
Inter-group comparisons were achieved using repeated measures ANOVA
tests for each outcome measured separately. A significant time group
interaction effect indicated a significant treatment effect. Profile plots were
used to assess the trend and direction of the treatment effect.
Results: The results of the study showed that Leander traction and Static
linear traction were both effective for treating chronic lumbar facet syndrome
and no statistically significant difference was found between subjective and
objective clinical findings between the two groups.
Dissertation in partial compliance with requirements for the Master's Degree in Technology: Chiropractic, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 2010.
Appears in Collections:Theses and dissertations (Health Sciences)

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