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Title: A homoeopathic proving of the African lioness (Panthera leo) with a subsequent comparison with lion ethology
Authors: Peter, Clarissa 
Issue Date: 2015
A homoeopathic drug proving was conducted by Master’s students at the Durban University of Technology (DUT). The proving substance was nail shavings obtained from an African lioness (Panthera leo).
The primary objective of this study was to identify the symptoms produced by healthy individuals in response to Panthera leo 30CH; this was done by administering the proving remedy (Panthera leo 30CH) to healthy individuals, who recorded the symptoms they experienced after taking the remedy. The secondary objective was to compare the symptoms produced to the ethology of the African lion. The final objective was to further develop the materia medica by adding the remedy picture of Panthera leo.
This study was qualitative and exploratory in nature. The study took the form of a randomised, double-blind and placebo controlled trial. A total of 30 provers, who met the inclusion criteria (Appendix C), participated in this study. The provers were randomly assigned to either a verum or placebo group, such that 24 received verum (Panthera leo) and 6 received placebo. Neither provers nor researchers had knowledge of which provers were in each group until the study was complete, and provers did not have any knowledge regarding the nature of the proving substance.
Before commencing the study all provers signed relevant information and consent documents. The researcher then took a full case history and performed a physical examination. Provers recorded their baseline state for 7 days in a journal, prior to taking the verum or placebo, as administered to them. After recording their baseline state for 7 days, they took their remedies and continued to record their symptoms for a minimum of 2 weeks, or until the proving symptoms ceased. Once they had completed recording in their journals, a post-proving case history was taken and a physical examination was performed. All journals were collected and analysed by the researcher.
The remedy was manufactured by triturating the crude substance up to the 3rd centesimal potency. This was then converted to a liquid potency and further diluted up to the 30th centesimal potency. Neutral granules were impregnated with Panthera leo 30CH, and dispensed as 10 granules in 500mg of lactose powder. The placebo was dispensed as 10 granules, which were impregnated with 96% ethanol, in 500mg lactose powder. Each prover received 6 lactose powders, containing either verum or placebo. The manufacture of Panthera leo was done according to the methods and guidelines stipulated in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (Benyunes, 2005)
The proving of Panthera leo 30CH produced a total of 1234 rubrics, which represent a wide variety of mental, emotional and physical symptoms. The main themes that emerged from the mental and emotional symptoms included anger, aggression, irritability, poor concentration and fear. Physical symptoms included catarrh, constipation, diarrhoea, diminished appetite, fatigue, insomnia, thirstiness and headaches.
A comparison was made between the symptomatology of Panthera leo and the ethology of the lion. Some of the themes of symptoms which corresponded with the ethology of the lion included ‘anger’, ‘audacity’, ‘ennui’, ‘increased appetite and thirst’, ‘responsibilities’ and ‘children’.
The objectives of this study were fulfilled, as the proving of Panthera leo produced a wide variety of clearly identifiable and observable symptoms amongst the healthy individuals recruited. There was a remarkable correlation of a portion of the materia medica with the ethological features of the African lion.
As a result of this study, the materia medica of Panthera leo was well outlined and will be added to the existing body of homoeopathic materia medica for application and utilization in clinical practice
Submitted in partial compliance with the requirements of the Master’s Degree in Technology: Homoeopathy, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 2015.
Appears in Collections:Theses and dissertations (Health Sciences)

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